Sunflower is an important oil crop in China, with very high cultivation value, and is cultivated in all parts of China. In order to improve the economic benefits of sunflower cultivation, it is important to realize the high yield of sunflower cultivation. Sunflower seed wholesaler will now introduce the high-yielding planting techniques of sunflower.
Sunflower cultivation should be selected from plots with flat land, medium fertility, convenient irrigation and drainage, relatively small soil viscosity, and should not be re-cropped. Peat soil is preferable when sowing sunflower seeds. Before sowing, mix the seeds with new tallow film, which can drive away underground pests, isolate virus infection and improve seed germination rate.
The sowing time of sunflower is generally from March to April, and the suitable temperature for sowing is 18~25℃, and the germination usually occurs about 5~7 days after sowing. The basic principle of sowing selection is to sow early or late according to the law of saline occurrence, so that the seedlings can avoid saline damage. Spring or summer sowing is carried out according to the fertility of the variety.
Sunflower is a dicotyledonous crop, the top soil out of the seedlings is more difficult, coupled with the preparation of the ground, sowing quality is not high or after sowing in the rain topsoil slab, or disease, insects, rodents, birds and other damage, are prone to cause the lack of seedlings broken monopoly. In order to ensure that a sowing of all seedlings, must be in the seedling period, field by field, line by line check, patches into rows of missing seedlings to replant in a timely manner.
Sunflower cultivation should be early between seedlings to prevent seedlings crowding seedlings, affecting the cultivation of strong seedlings, and even the future yield, as for saline land and heavy pest plots, the seeding time can be appropriately delayed. At the same time, sunflower seedlings should be set early, which is good for cultivating strong seedlings and the development of flower discs, and the seedlings should be set at 2 pairs of true leaves.
In general, sunflower is tilled 2 to 3 times to weed and loosen the soil, break the knot, retain water, reduce evaporation and mitigate saline damage, etc. The first tillage is carried out at 1 to 2 pairs of true leaves in combination with seedling fixing, the second tillage is carried out 1 week after seedling fixing, and the third tillage is completed in combination with trenching, soil cultivation and fertilization before sealing the monopoly.
Sunflower is more fertilizer-loving, so open furrow fertilizer is usually carried out at the third mid-tillage, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, 5 kg of diammonium phosphate and 10 kg of urea per mu, mixed well and applied into the soil. By opening the furrow and cultivating the soil, it can effectively ensure the growth and development of secondary roots, prevent collapse and reduce the branching of the base below the cotyledon node.
Sunflower irrigation using furrow irrigation, general plant height of 1.5 m varieties, the first water should be carried out in the bud period, the second water in the first flowering period, the third water in the filling period. For varieties with a plant height of about 2 meters, the first water should be carried out 4 to 5 days before flowering (if the drought is serious, the irrigation should be advanced), the second water should be carried out 6 to 7 days after the first water, and the third water should be carried out during the filling period.
Sunflower self-pollination fertility rate is low, heterogeneous pollination fertility rate is high, cultivation should be timely artificially assisted pollination, pollination by means of pair of discs, powder puffs, cotton thread gloves, or collection of parental pollen with a small brush gently applied to the stigma of the parent, pollination in the blooming period for 3 to 4 times.